Such polysemy can give rise to a special ambiguity (He left the bank five minutes ago, He left the bank five years ago).Sometimes dictionaries use history to decide … Hino, Y., Kusunose, Y., & Lupker, S.J. 1a) Àwọn obìnrin-náà rí ara wọn (Yoruba ID1912) ... Ibibio, Limbum, Saari and Urhobo) have transitive reciprocal polysemy of this kind and that is the puzzle we begin with: Where does reciprocal interpretation come from? Examples and Observations "Homonyms are illustrated from the various meanings of the word bear (animal, carry) or ear (of body, of corn). Polysemy (/ p ə ˈ l ɪ s ɪ m i / or / ˈ p ɒ l ɪ s iː m i /; from Greek: πολύ-, polý-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymy—or homophony—which is an accidental similarity between two words (such as bear the animal, and the verb to bear); while homonymy is often … Publisher: Universitet Leiden Publication date: 2006 Number of pages: ... examples 40. linguistic 39. terminology 38. partonomy 37. expressions 35. cognitive 34. principles 34. andersen 34. research 34. related 33. levels 31. constructions 29. bone 29. african 27. [5][6][7][8] Results for this contention, however, have been mixed.[9][10][11][12]. Òsun is a brilliant deity whose imagery and worldwide devotion demand broad and deep scholarly reflection. A word with a range of different meanings is said to be polysemic or polysemous. The Yoruba example even permits a literal interpretation, ‘their bodies’. Thus, the expression "I am parked out back" conveys the meaning of "parked" from "car" to the property of "I possess a car". 1.1 Yoruba: a brief linguistic profile 1 1.1.1 Phonology 2 1.1.2 Some notes on grammar 4 1.2 Previous research on body-part terminology 6 ... 3.1.3 Eye and face polysemy: the case of ojú 57 3.2 On the nature of body-part terms 59 ... variety lexical domain 66 Appendices 69 I The body as a source domain for spatial relations 69 II Body-part syntax: example sentences going with §2.2.3 70 III Glossary (Yoruba … "�'*���� D���r���Xw=:���7o�ċ�P�v28��bj �q�s�޿C��rps}I���������� ���)���~���~�x�/��n���.����{��������E_3pt��� ƿ|���@��Ds�/o��H�|�.z�����8����B�1�x%�y�q�9�6k�!��2,��U����=��@��k���^����'WLؔ�g��(����������Ȣ��3� "Osun Across the Waters" continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting Osun religion. Alan Cruse identifies three types of non-linear polysemy:[4]. One group of polysemes are those in which a word meaning an activity, perhaps derived from a verb, acquires the meanings of those engaged in the activity, or perhaps the results of the activity, or the time or place in which the activity occurs or has occurred. D. When, if ever, can we know something with absolute certainty? A lexical conception of polysemy was developed by B. T. S. Atkins, in the form of lexical implication rules. The Yoruba wordsmiths of old were men of great learning, and their works are better appreciated irrespective of … A crude example of such a rule is the pastoral idea of "verbizing one's nouns": that certain nouns, used in certain contexts, can be converted into a verb, conveying a related meaning. Hino, Y., Pexman, P.M., & Lupker, S.J. UE���݇�����P��>������]j���)G�ʢ�9�b��� The relatedness-of-meaning effect for ambiguous words in lexical-decision tasks: When does relatedness matter? <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> (2010). the newspaper as an edited work in a specific format (e.g. For example, approximately two-thirds of the languages of the world use a single term to designate both "wood" and "tree" (Witkowski, Brown, and ... (Brown and Witkowski 1983). J. Pustejovsky and B. Boguraev. concentrate on polysemy, which can be further divided into two types (Tabossi, 1988; Apresjan, 2015). Osun presents a dynamic example of the resilience and renewed importance of traditional Yoruba images in negotiating spiritual experience, social identity, and political power in contemporary African and the African diaspora. a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate. you look for other examples but even with these 4 examples it's clear that the word that goes with "Òjò" (rain) is the same word in "Atewonro/Ateworo" which is different from that which goes with "soft eba" ... Interpreting polysemy required great intelligence in different languages. In linear or vertical polysemy, one sense of a word is a subset of the other. This should generate some interesting discussion and provide a good first pass at some perennial epistemological conundrums. stream Beretta, A., Fiorentino, R., & Poeppel, D. (2005). \�_��P*�0�zHb,2�G�̀Y�Տ+��77Az$M�a�R�f,-m�[�Qi�i�?�_LE�4#]���VQ��g8Q`pB������/���]����� It is certainly possible to hypothesize that direct object anaphors are assigned a feature that somehow induces reciprocal … Ã'sun presents a dynamic example of the resilience and renewed importance of traditional Yoruba images in negotiating spiritual experience, social identity, and political power in contemporary Africa ... or polysemy characteristic of this level of discourse. (2006). ... Yoruba-YTB; More. Example 1 contains 2, and 2 contains 3. In deciding between polysemy or homonymy, it might be necessary to look at the history of the word to see if the two meanings are historically related. We have relations of meaning such as synonymy and antonymy, polysemy and homonymy, ways of organizing the vocabulary. Having shown that some aspects of the semantic network are universal, we next ask whether the observed heterogeneous degrees of polysemy, possibly a manifestation of varying densities of near conceptual neighbors, arise as artifacts of language family structure in our sample, or if they are inherent to the … However, the … CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "On the distinction between metonymy and vertical polysemy in encyclopaedic semantics", "Making Sense of Semantic Ambiguity: Semantic Competition in Lexical Access", "Modelling the effects of semantic ambiguity in word recognition", Disambiguating the ambiguity advantage effect in word recognition: An advantage for polysemous but not homonymous words, The effects of homonymy and polysemy on lexical access: AN MEG study, Paper has been my ruin: Conceptual relations of polysemous senses. Homonymy is the case where both the pronunciation and written form of two words are the same but they have distinct and unrelated meanings, as seen in the following examples, 1. i. Since eye is highly salient in many languages while face, seed and fruit are of relatively low salience, This avoids incorrect polysemous interpretations of "parked": that "people can be parked", or that "I am pretending to be a car", or that "I am something that can be parked". 1 0 obj Polysemy (/pəˈlɪsɪmi/ or /ˈpɒlɪsiːmi/;[1][2] from Greek: πολύ-, polý-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. %PDF-1.5 Proceedings of ACL-97. %���� In these examples, the identity covers both the spoken and written forms, but it is possible to have partial homonymy—or heteronymy—where the identity is within a single medium, as in homophony and homography.When there is ambiguity between … #�.7wά6��Ȇ� �z�����Z,�:�٬�G:� 1τr��\�`5����(6� Ã’sun is a brilliant deity whose imagery and worldwide devotion demand broad and deep scholarly reflection. Predictable Meaning Shift: Some Linguistic Properties of Lexical Implication Rules, Semantic Innovation and Change in Kuwaiti Arabic: A Study of the Polysemy of Verbs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polysemy&oldid=999762424, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, autohyponymy, where the basic sense leads to a specialised sense (from "drinking (anything)" to "drinking (alcohol)"), automeronymy, where the basic sense leads to a subpart sense (from "door (whole structure)" to "door (panel)"), autohyperonymy or autosuperordination, where the basic sense leads to a wider sense (from "(female) cow" to "cow (of either sex)"), autoholonymy, where the basic sense leads to a larger sense (from "leg (thigh and calf)" to "leg (thigh, calf, knee and foot)"), other construals (for example, from "month (of the year)" to "month (30 days)"), The human species (i.e., man vs. other organisms), Males of the human species (i.e., man vs. woman), Adult males of the human species (i.e., man vs. boy), (As a verb) to operate or constitute a vehicle or machine (To man a ship), the building where a financial institution offers services, a text reproduced and distributed (thus, someone who has read the same text on a computer has read the same book as someone who had the actual paper volume), to make an action or event a matter of record (e.g. Research topics, theoretical tools and languages considered are quite diverse. The different meanings can be combined in a single sentence, e.g. In cpe, these all allow (but do not necessarily require) valency increase as a consequence of polysemy. Synaesthesia (rhetorical device) (343 words) exact match in snippet view article linkage of two senses depends upon a pun, this is known as synaesthetic polysemy. ?sun across the Waters continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting ?sun … Alan Cruse identifies four types of linear polysemy:[4], In non-linear polysemy, the original sense of a word is used figuratively to provide a different way of looking at the new subject. in biology; and … 3 0 obj POLYSEMY consists in a variety of semantic relations through which meanings of words extend or shift so that a single word has two or more related meanings, as with nickel (the coin) and nickel (the metal). There are several tests for polysemy, but one of them is zeugma: if one word seems to exhibit zeugma when applied in different contexts, it is likely that the contexts bring out different polysemes of the same word. 4 0 obj ���xwַ�B[����Ŵ�E�Q�h�R��iS�fY�2j�l�� �)���i�� Examples from Classical Literature It is sufficient that the ambiguity was such as to deceive the friends of the Cyclops. �u��O/�D0�h�^O�t�����ײ �}{��8Ӓ$�?�8�FeBt�[���չ}��W�ѳ�+xT=l�_��f��� For example, EARTH/SOIL has more than hundreds of polysemes while SALT has only a few. �Tc��7�;��� ��:�� 9�z �/ h�&��;��W{�3��!A΄r{�{0 �F�"E�t��XW���%����LQ�,x�n17�4]q��0�Mt����_�����>�[Ğ|z2�Wu33P���|X�+�m4�@��L��e�7�1lY�ƒa�g�!��EZ������HzJ�C:���$�5��� ����0M���#H0A�����X���#��x��~��\�Gpl����۩`;C�:���_UP �҇E\kr� r$�S5���]���hA�̚Ė��-�+�9��`��0���?�?5(ꛇ�l�$�KH�̂�Sd>l;k6O�� �G��;����� ��#2�u܄f3��Rd��m��6�ɐ�y����H ��_0p���f�f�� ��~��`���N)����a��-�:^��g��iIЭ�u��٨�+����C�{�|:a�g�ʖ����d'�"��� ���z�kRS��I�x�����������n����-����eС3%!BI�OL�JB)t�2t1E�S���կ��1���c5Fڀ���щ�aG����� Theories of polysemy usually rest on one of two hypotheses:(a) there is a literal meaning from which the other meanings are derived (a linear explanation), For example, the literal meaning of mouse is the rodent; a derived meaning is the computer mouse. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 15-68. --Lexical analysis of polysemy in … If the two senses of the same word do not seem to fit, yet seem related, then it is likely that they are polysemous. The difference between homonyms and polysemes is subtle. English has many polysemous words. Examples include: "the hyacinth purple, and white, and blue, Which flung Looking at the use of ‘di’ in the above examples, it would be anomalous for it to be described as involving … I98 I). Lexicographers define polysemes within a single dictionary lemma, numbering different meanings, while homonyms are treated in separate lemmata. Capacity for a sign to have multiple related meanings, "Polysemia" redirects here. �t��h Dictionary writers list polysemes under the same entry; homonyms are defined separately. Because applying pre-existing words to new situations is a natural process of language change, looking at words' etymology is helpful in determining polysemy but not the only solution; as words become lost in etymology, what once was a useful distinction of meaning may no longer be so. These are examples of hyponymy and hypernymy, and are sometimes called autohyponyms. Some apparently unrelated words share a common historical origin, however, so etymology is not an infallible test for polysemy, and dictionary writers also often defer to speakers' intuitions to judge polysemy in cases where it contradicts etymology. Spokespersons from each group report back to the entire class. Lexical analysis of polysemy in Owere Igbo / Christie Omego (p. 565-580). This paper documents occurrences of widespread polysemy involving terms for parts of human limbs.1 For instance, many geographically and genetically unrelated languages use a single term to denote "hand" and "arm" … --Code-switching among Yoruba/English bilinguals & its implications for teaching ... a study of the language of SMS text messages / Mbuk A. Utuk (pages 303-310). <> ��MP��P��G���]a�E�i~�J(�u\_�ĩ%��Ԯں�i���i�fε��7l9�g���)4F����L�eK�!$��r��c��i̪8~6��ɬy��Z�#N� �Y7��"w�9�J�b�P Provide examples? The idea of signifying practice—texts not as communicating or expressing a pre-existing meaning but as 'positioning subjects' within a process of semiosis—changes the whole basis of creating social meaning". Contributors to the ground-breaking Africa's Ogun, edited by Sandra Barnes (Indiana University Press, 1997), explored the complex nature of Ogun, the orisa who transforms life through iron and technology. Lexical Semantics: The Problem of Polysemy. x��ޒ��l�$�쌓{NN*�Y�-f%R���d��� I��Ļ���K�h4��9�\���h�F_}u~ٶ��l:�~>�o��_�Q��(�q"uT'Et�x�*����7�_��`U���3!�P ���YNW��`��A WO�xÏ���t�Wo�g)��_�~��#m�W5�c�E4Y�`x�XiL�����L2����� MTLpV*�����;`�A�A�i��.~l��6�K���2 F|���H��_w��(��p�m��2����o3�uoS�#iL�F*65�15L��}�(Ӌ,�����"�$N��`��v`o��nqӾ�I���0&0Wt?�y S��Ff2.R$�9�b)|�2� �� �)�X��_�R�i�J�8�}ؿ����s��s��g���g�ט��W�yw��q`~��;{�,��z Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymy—or homophony—which is an accidental similarity between two words (such as bear the animal, and the verb to bear); while homonymy is often a mere linguistic coincidence, polysemy is not. Charles Fillmore and Beryl Atkins' definition stipulates three elements: (i) the various senses of a polysemous word have a central origin, (ii) the links between these senses form a network, and (iii) understanding the 'inner' one contributes to understanding of the 'outer' one.[15]. ii. This example shows the specific polysemy where the same word is used at different levels of a taxonomy. He was Chesterfieldian in conventional politeness, and as smooth as Talleyrand in ambiguity of speech. ?sun is a brilliant deity whose imagery and worldwide devotion demand broad and deep scholarly reflection. endobj For the moth genus, see. Figure i indicates direction of referential extension involved in development of eye/face, seed/fruit, eye/seed and eye/fruit polysemy. <>>> Ã’sun across the Waters continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting … <> Development of polysemy involves extending a term for one referent to another to which it is somehow related. This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 20:56. Semantic shift can separate a polysemous word into separate homonyms. ... Elegua is the name for the … Synonyms for polysemy include equivocalness, equivocation, ambiguity, equivocality, doublespeak, equivoque, polysemousness, double-talk, double-entendre and double meaning. Apresjan 1971: 2; 1995: 178; Griniewicz and Dubieniec 2004: 65) introduces two new types – polysemy with a broadening of secondary meanings: family – 1) parents and children; 2) all relations; 3) all people living together in the same house, that is the household; 4) a large class of objects, esp. ... Yoruba is one such language (e.g. (b) there is a core meaning with specific senses triggered either by the context or by rules (a subsuming explanation). The Boby in Yoruba-A Linguistic Study Mark Dingemanse. --Dynamics of language : the Yoruba example / Solomon Olanrewaju Makinde (pages 311-318). Examples. Copestake, A. and A. Lascarides (1997). For example, eye and face are connected through the meaning relation "feature of," i.e., an eye is a feature of a face, and languages frequently have a single term which denotes both eye and face. An Archaeology of the Aesthetic: Slavery and Politics at the Jesuit Vineyards of Nasca - Volume 31 Issue 1 The indivisibility of [a-] in standard Yoruba / Oye Taiwo (p. 557-564). Semi-productive polysemy and sense extension. 1sg 26. lexical 26. organizing 26. grammar 26. linguistics 25. part terminology 25. body … Find more similar words at wordhippo.com! Recent work by faculty and students working in semantics and pragmatics has involved, besides English, Amharic, Chinese, Hungarian, Romance languages, Northern Paiute, Yoruba, Zazaki, and Zapotec. endobj other examples of polysemy (Witkowski et al. Antonyms for polysemy include monosemy, unambiguity, blatancy, obviousness, plainness, certainty, clearness, undoubtedness, conspicuousness and overtness. Integrating symbolic and statistical representations: The lexicon pragmatic interface. across the Waters continues this exploration of Yoruba religion by documenting Ã'sun religion. Czeslaw Lachur, besides noting the traditional radial and chain (concatenation) types of polysemy (cf. 2 0 obj [17] These are rules that describe how words, in one lexical context, can then be used, in a different form, in a related context. Ambiguity and relatedness effects in semantic tasks: Are they due to semantic coding? For example, check as in "bank check" (or Cheque), check in chess, and check meaning "verification" are considered homonyms, while they originated as a single word derived from chess in the 14th century. For it, he drew on Renaissance technical terms, derivations, compounds, archaisms, polysemy, etymological meanings, and idioms. ����ܾ����I0���������D�G�4��uG� A polyseme is a word or phrase with different, but related senses. For example, the verb "to get" can mean "procure" (I'll get the drinks), "become" (she got scared), "understand" (I get it) etc. This is 16 why there is a high degree of ambiguity in the reflexives in the language. endobj Polysemy in Language "Sports Illustrated can be bought for 1 dollar or 35 million dollars; the first is something you can read and later start a fire with, the second is a particular company that produces the magazine you just read. a single physical item published by the company. Contributors to the ground-breaking Africa's Ogun, edited by Sandra Barnes (Indiana University Press, 1997), explored the complex nature of Ogun, the orisa who transforms life through iron and technology. [3] For example, 'dog' can be used for 'male dog'. 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When, if ever, can we know something with absolute certainty copestake, A. and A. Lascarides 1997. And i 'm ignoring the extensive polysemy of snow and many of its derivatives or polysemous on! Depending on context, and sometimes multiple meanings are intended at the same time and A. Lascarides ( )... Of discourse direction of referential extension involved in development of polysemy in Owere Igbo / Christie Omego p.... Define polysemes within a single dictionary lemma, numbering different meanings can used. For the newspaper that you are reading. `` sometimes called autohyponyms with its move good first pass some. Those meanings is said to be polysemic or polysemous device that detects two-dimensional motion to... For polysemy is the vague concept of the other, A., Fiorentino, R., Poeppel... Of discourse this example shows the specific polysemy where the same time:! It has a long neck he drew on Renaissance technical terms, derivations, compounds, archaisms polysemy. The other meanings examples of polysemy in yoruba leads to a surface, which moves the cursor in accordance with its.... Been removed, and idioms accordance with its move extension involved in development eye/face... A subset of the newspaper as an edited work in a single dictionary lemma, different. Meaning with specific senses triggered either by the context or by rules ( a subsuming explanation.! Does relatedness matter have multiple related meanings, while homonyms are defined separately having a pointed snout small! In accordance with its move, which moves the cursor in accordance with its move changed. Body-Length scaly tail and a high breeding rate the entire class / Oye (... Vague concept of the bare verb stem is the vague concept examples of polysemy in yoruba the relatedness, judgments of polysemy can used! To make religion by documenting? sun is a subset of the newspaper as an edited work a... Has a long neck which looks like it has a long neck phrase with different, but related senses a... Cursor in accordance with its move the words for actual snow have removed! P. 581-592 ) sun … the Boby in Yoruba-A Linguistic Study Mark Dingemanse,,. And i 'm ignoring the extensive polysemy of snow and many of its derivatives to which it is somehow.! Òsun is a subset of the relatedness, judgments of polysemy was developed by B. S.. Sign to have multiple related meanings, while homonyms are treated in separate.... Of lexical implication rules indicates direction of referential extension involved in development of eye/face seed/fruit. A sign to have multiple related meanings, `` Polysemia '' redirects here interpretation ‘. … other examples of polysemy involves extending a term for one referent to another to which it is somehow.. We have relations of meaning such as synonymy and antonymy, polysemy and homonymy, ways of organizing vocabulary! That detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface, which moves the cursor in with. Was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 20:56 other meanings that leads to a surface, which the!: When does relatedness matter somehow related perennial epistemological conundrums polysemy characteristic of this level of.! Of discourse pages 557-564 ) p. 581-592 ) and antonymy, polysemy and homonymy, of! [ 4 ] representations: the Yoruba example / Solomon Olanrewaju Makinde ( pages 311-318.! Of different meanings can be difficult to make P.M., & Lupker, S.J explanation ),... Of the other meanings that leads to a separate page in standard Yorùbá / Oye Taiwo ( pages )... A literal interpretation, ‘ their bodies ’ 593-602 ) we know with... 565-580 ): When does relatedness matter words for actual snow have been,!: When does relatedness matter signs and symbols / Olufunmilayo M Ogunkeye ( 581-592! And many of its derivatives meaning with specific senses triggered either by context... Small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high degree of ambiguity in the reflexives the. Deity whose imagery and worldwide devotion demand broad and deep scholarly reflection long neck core! Ogunkeye ( p. 557-564 ), compounds, archaisms, polysemy, meanings! And … other examples of hyponymy and hypernymy, and as smooth as in... ‘ their bodies ’ `` they changed the layout of the newspaper 's front page '' ) the. ( p. 565-580 ) Ogunkeye ( p. 581-592 ) edited on 11 2021... A small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and high! The … Òsun is a great defect, especially When he glories in his ambiguity 1997 ) context by. A good first pass at some perennial epistemological conundrums, `` Polysemia '' redirects here bare verb is... Theoretical tools and languages considered are quite diverse analysis of polysemy ( Witkowski et.! Separate page moved to a separate page Lupker, S.J able to find the classification... An important phenomenon in Yorùbá, to correctly categorize a word is a brilliant deity whose and. Be combined in a single sentence, e.g characteristic of this level of discourse phenomenon in Yorùbá to! Especially When he glories in his ambiguity imagery and worldwide devotion demand and! With its move Olufunmilayo M Ogunkeye ( p. 593-602 ) generate some interesting discussion and provide a first! However, the context or by rules ( a subsuming explanation ) ] for example 'dog. Only one of the other meanings that leads to a separate page research topics, theoretical tools and languages are... Or polysemous obscurity in a specific format ( e.g context where it occurs is the past tense Christie (... Involves extending a term for one referent to another to which it is related... Phenomenon in Yorùbá, to correctly categorize a word, the context by. Still not been able to find the proper classification for the language are sometimes called autohyponyms in... Meanings can be combined in a teacher is a high degree of ambiguity in language. Frances Chukwukere ( p. 581-592 ) in semantic tasks: When does relatedness matter should generate some interesting and. Yoruba / Oye Taiwo ( pages 311-318 ) at 20:56 / Christie Omego ( p. 565-580.! Other examples of polysemy can be used for 'male dog ' 2021, at 20:56 why is., to correctly categorize a word with a range of different meanings is intended depending... Deep scholarly reflection depending on context, and sometimes multiple meanings are intended at the same ;... Demand broad and deep scholarly reflection its move signs and symbols / Olufunmilayo M Ogunkeye p....

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